Genotype-Environment Interactions of Traditional Chicken

 

Traditional chickens are favorably grown by raisers because of their ability to utilize locally available resources, ranging ability, adaptability to warmer environment, and the distinctive taste of their meat. However, their adaptability is challenged by changing climate as adaptation is always lagging behind. Reports showed that this chicken had stable response with changing environmental temperature but this is refuted by others who found out correlated response in terms of its production efficiency. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the genotype by environment interaction in terms of adult liveweight, hatching percentage, and survival rate of the different groups of traditional chickens in Western Visayas, Philippines.

This study employed purposive sampling by revisiting the respondents of a previous study of the author in different provinces of Western Visayas.

Results revealed that the mean daily temperature had higher degree (P<0.01) of association with relative humidity (r = -0.310), rainfall (r = -634), and wind speed (r = 0.341); than with traditional chickens can be raised in any of the production environment except for Bisaya I which had reduced liveweight when exposed to warmer environment in the region.

Relative humidity was significantly correlated with rainfall (r = 0.275) and wind speed (r = -0.301); and, traditional chickens can be raised in any of the production environment except for Bisaya I which had reduced liveweight when exposed to warmer environment in the region.

The above findings imply that interaction was observed only among Bisaya I raised in different environmental temperature. The Bisaya II and Jolo chickens can be grown in any production environment.

Source: Genotype-by-Environment Interactions of Traditional Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus L.) Groups in Western Visayas, Philippines by Jaime C. Cabarles, Jr. (completed March 2012) Central Philippine University, Jaro, Iloilo City, Philippines

 

 

Briquetting of Biomass and Urban Wastes

 

This study was conducted to produce briquettes as alternative source of energy from abundant biomass and urban wastes using a hand-press briquette molder primarily designed for household or small-scale level of production. The briquette molder with major parts of molders, handle and frame was constructed using locally available materials. It was fabricated at a local welding shop making it easier for adoption should a local community decide on small-scale production of briquettes using any ideal material for briquetting.

Three materials were prepared for this study, namely: paper, carbonized rice husk (CRH), and sawdust in order to produce six different types of briquettes. These six briquettes made use of the following mixing proportions: Briquette 1: paper (100%); Briquette 2: CRH (71%) + cornstarch (29%); Briquette 3: Sawdust (71%)+ cornstarch (29%), Briquette 4: paper (50%) + CRH (50%); Briquette 5: paper (50%) + sawdust (50%); and Briquette 6: paper (50%) + CRH (25%) + sawdust (25%). The dry weight of biomass and urban wastes and their combinations were all fixed to 100g. However, the total fresh weight of briquettes produced per type varied due to the added weight of water after the papers were pulped. Cornstarch was used as binding material in the production of pure CRH and sawdust briquettes while paper served as binder for the four other mixtures. Once a homogeneous mixture was attained during preparation for briquette production, smaller sizes of balled materials were placed into each of the molder of the machine. The materials were compacted by closing and pressing down the movable upper half portion of the molder. One hand of the operator held the handle while the other hand prevents the machine from tipping down by holding its frame securely. Excess water especially in mixtures with paper was also removed during compaction. After compaction, the movable top was opened to take out briquettes produced which were then placed on trays for sundrying until ideal for fuel use.

Converting wastes like waste papers, carbonized rice husks and sawdusts using a simple technology such as the hand-press briquette molder has great prospects when utilized as fuel for household use and eventually as substitute fuel for charcoal. With the briquette molder’s ease when operated together with the simplicity in the preparation of the recommended mixtures used, a potential income generating project for an association may be achieved.

Source: Briquetting of Biomass and Urban Wastes using a Household Briquette Molder
by Aries Roda D. Romallosa (completed
August 2011) Central Philippine University, Jaro, Iloilo City, Philippines 

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